HomeAbout JournalEditorial BoardSubscriptionsContacts UsCHINESE
Home >> MagazineArticle
Research Progress on Theory of “Sulfate Salt Weath…
Author:DENGDehua1 LIUZanqun1 GeertDESCHUTTER2 LIUYunhua3 
Unit:1. School of Civil Engineering and Architecture  Central South University  Changsha 410075  China  2. Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research  Department of Structural Engineering  Ghent University  Ghent 9052  Belgium  3. Chenzhou Bureau of Quality and Safety Supervision for Construction Engineering  Chenzhou 423000  Hunan  China 
Keyword:sulfate attack  salt weathering  concrete 
Year,volume(Issue):page number:2012,40(2):175-185

Abstract: Physical sulfate attack on concrete has received more attentions. Due to the similar behavior between concrete and other porous materials, “sulfate salt weathering” becomes a degradation mechanism for deteriorated concrete close to the earth face. However, this aspect is not well understood. In this paper, some disputations were summarized and discussed based on the extensive review of long-term field and lab-scale studies on “sulfate salt weathering on concrete”. Consistent with disputed remarks, some issues that need to be further investigated were described in detail. This paper also provided a framework for considering the complexity of “sulfate salt weathering on concrete” and suggested a systematic future research for the scientific conclusions.

redirect husband cheated unfaithful husband
read wifes cheat reasons wives cheat on their husbands
open why do men cheat on their wife My husband cheated on me
abortion las vegas period after abortion abortion pictures
Foundation item:
国家自然科学基金(50378092);中南大学自由探索计划(2011- QNZT110)资助。
About The Author:
第一作者:邓德华(1958—),男,教授。 通信作者:刘赞群(1975—),男,博士,副教授。
how do i know if my wife has cheated men having affairs read
cialis coupon cialis coupon cialis coupon

[1]  SKALNY P, ODLER I, MARCHAND J. Sulfate Attack on Concrete [M]. London: Spon, 2001:
[2]  HIME W G, MATHER B. “sulfate attack” or is it? [J]. Cem Concr Res, 1999, 29(5): 789–791.
[3]  NEVILLE A. The confused world of sulfate attack on concrete [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2004, 34(8): 1275–1296.
[4]  HAYNES H, O’NEILL R, MEHTA P K. Concrete deterioration from physical attack by salts [J]. Concr Int, 1996, 18(1): 63–68.
[5]  READING T J. Physical aspects of sodium sulfate attack on concrete [M]. ACI SP–77, 1982: 75–81.
[6]  FOLLIARD K J, SANDBERG P. Mechanisms of concrete deterioration by sodium sulfate crystallization [M]. ACI SP–145, 1994: 933–945.
[7]  HAYNES H. Sulfate attack on concrete: laboratory versus field experience [J]. Concr Int, 2002, 24(7): 64–70.
[8]  SKALNY J, ODLER I, YOUNG F. Discussion of the paper “Sulfate attack,” or is it? by W.G. Hime and B. Mather [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2000, 30(1): 161–162.
[9]  HIME W G, MARTINEK R A, BACKUS L A, et al. Salt hydration distress [J].Concr Int, 2001, 23(10): 43–50.
[10]  ERLIN B, JANA D. Force of hydration that can cause havoc in concrete [J]. Concr Int, 2003, 25(11): 51–57.
[11]  THAULOW N, SAHU S. Mechanism of concrete deterioration due to salt crystallization [J]. Mater Charact, 2004, 53(2–4): 123–127.
[12]  杨全兵, 杨钱荣. 硫酸钠盐结晶对混凝土破坏的影响[J]. 硅酸盐学报, 2007, 35(7): 877–880, 885.
YANG Quanbing, YANG Qianrong. J Chin Ceram Soc, 2007, 35(7): 877–880, 885.
[13]  MA K, XIE Y, LONG G, et al. Deterioration characteristics of cement mortar by physical attack of sodium sulfate [J]. J Chin Chem Soc, 2007, 35(10): 1376–1381.
[14]  HAYNES H, O’NEILL R, NEFF M, et al. Salt weathering distress on concrete exposed to sodium sulfate environment [J]. ACI Mater J, 2008, 105(1): 35–43.
[15]  BASSUONI M, NEHDI M. Durability of self-consolidating concrete to different exposure regimes of sodium sulfate attack [J]. Mater Struct, 2009, 42(8): 1039–1057.
[16]  HAYNES H, O’NEILL R, NEFF M, et al. Salt weathering of concrete by sodium carbonate and sodium chloride [J]. ACI Mater J, 2010, 107(3): 256–266.
[17]  YOSHIDA N, MATSUNAMI Y, NAGAYAMA M, et al. Salt weathering in residential concrete foundations exposed to sulfate-bearing ground [J]. J Adv Concr Technol, 2010, 8(2): 121–134.
[18]  HARTELL J A, ASCE M, ANDREW B J, et al. Sulfate attack on concrete: effect of partial immersion [J]. J Mater Civil Eng, 2011, 23(5): 572–579.
[19]  ACI committee web letter: 201.2R Chapter 8 Physical Salt Attack [R]. 2010.
[20]  YOUNG J F. Sulfate attack (letter to the Editor)[J]. Concr Int, 1998, 20(8): 7.
[21]  FLATT R J, SCHUTTER G W. Hydration and crystallization pressure of sodium sulfate: a critical review [J]. Mater Res Soc Symp Proc, 2002, 712: 29–34;
[22]  TSUI N, FLATT R J, SCHERER G W. Crystallization damage by sodium sulfate [J]. J Cult Herit, 2003, 4(2): 109–115.
[23]  RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO C, DOEHNE E. Salt weathering: influence of evaporation rate, supersaturation and crystallization pattern [J]. Earth Surf Processes and Landforms 1999, 24(2/3): 91–209.
[24]  RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO C, DOEHNE E, SEBASTIAN E. How does sodium sulfate crystallize? Implications for the decay and testing of building materials [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2000, 30(10): 1527–1534.
[25]  BENAVENTE D, GARCǐA DEL CURA M A, GARCIA-GUINEA J, et al. Role of pore structure in salt crystallization in unsaturated porous stone [J]. J Cryst Growth, 2004, 260(3/4): 532–544.
[26]  DOEHNE E. Salt weathering: a selective review [J]. Geological Society Special Publication, 2002, 205: 51–64.
[27]  BENAVENTE D, GARCÍA DEL CURA M A, BERNABÉU A, et al. Quantification of salt weathering in porous stones using an experimental continuous partial immersion method [J]. Eng Geol, 2001, 59(3/4): 313–325.
[28]  VALENZA J J, SCHERER G W. A review of salt scaling: I. Phenomenology [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2007, 37(7): 1007–1021.
[29]  VALENZA J J, SCHERER G W. “A review of salt scaling II: Mechanisms” [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2007, 37(7): 1022–1034.
[30]  MCMILLAN F R, STANTION T E, TYLER I L, et al. Long-Time Study of Cement Performance in Concrete // Concrete exposed of sulfate solis [M]. Portland Cement Association ,1949.
[31]  STARK D. Durability of Concrete in Sulfate-rich Soils [M]. Portland Cement Association, 1989.
[32]  STARK D. Performance of Concrete in Sulfate Environments [M]. RD129, Portland Cement Association, 2002.
[33]  李兴濂, 王光雍, 李家瑞, 等. 三峡地区材料33年土壤侵蚀环境研究[J]. 腐蚀科学与防护技术, 7(1): 1–9.
LI Xinglian, WANG Guanyong, LI Jiarui, et al. Corros Sci Prot Tech, 1995, 7(1): 1–9.
[34]  马孝轩, 仇新刚, 陈从庆. 混凝土及钢筋混凝土材料在地下的耐腐蚀性研究[J]. 混凝土与水泥制品, 1997(6): 6–11.
MA Xiaoxuan, QIU Xingang, CHEN Chongqing. China Concr Cem Prod, 1997(6): 6–11.
[35]  仇新刚, 马孝轩, 孙秀武. 钢筋混凝土在滨海盐土地区腐蚀规律试验研究[J]. 建筑科学, 2001, 17(6): 41–43.
QIU Xingang, MA Xiaoxuan, SUN Xiuwu. Build Sci, 2001, 17(6): 41–43.
[36]  仇新刚, 马孝轩, 陈从庆. 混凝土及钢筋混凝土土壤腐蚀数据积累及规律研究[J]. 建筑科学, 2003, 14(1): 7–12.
QIU Xingang, MA Xiaoshuan, CHEN Chongqing. Build Sci, 2003, 14(1): 7–12.
[37]  马孝轩. 我国主要类型土壤对混凝土材料腐蚀性规律的研究[J]. 建筑科学, 2003, 19(6): 56–57.
MA Xiaoxuan. Build Sci, 2003, 19(6): 56–57.
[38]  IRASSAR E F, DI MAIO A, BATIC O R. Sulfate attack on concrete with mineral admixtures [J]. Cem Concr Res, 1996, 26(1): 113–123.
[39]  中华人民共和国住房和城乡建设部. GB/T 50476—2008 混凝土结构耐久性设计规范[S]. 北京: 中国标准出版社, 2008.
[40]  CRAMMOND N. The occurrence of thaumasite in modern construction–a review [J]. Cem Concr Compos, 2002, 24(3/4): 393–402.
[41]  BROWN P W, DOERR A. Chemical changes in concrete due to the ingress of aggressive species [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2000, 30(3): 411– 418.
[42]  FLATT R J. Salt damage in porous materials: How high supersaturations are generated [J]. J Cryst Growth, 2002, 242(3/4): 435–454.
[43]  HU Mingyu, LONG Fumei, TANG Mingshu. The thaumasite form of sulfate attack in concrete of Yongan Dam [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2006, 36(10): 2006–2008.
[44]  FERRARIS C F, STUTZMAN P E, SNYDER K A. Sulfate resistance of concrete: a new approach [M]//Research and Development Information PCA R & D, Serial No. 2486, 2006.
[45]  BUENFELD N R, SHURAFA–DAOUDI M T, MCLOUGHIN I M. Chloride transport due to wick action in concrete[C]//RILEM International Workshop on Chloride Penetration into Concrete, 1995: 315–324.
[46]  PEL L, HUININK H, KOPINGA K, et al. Efflorescence pathway diagram: Understanding salt weathering [J]. Constr Build Mater, 2004, 18(5): 309–313.
[47]  PUYATE Y T, LAWRENCE C J. Effect of solute parameters on wick action in concrete [J]. Chem Eng Sci, 1999, 54(19): 4257–4265.
[48]  PUYATE Y T, LAWRENCE C J. Steady state solutions for chloride distribution due to wick action in concrete [J]. Chem Eng Sci, 2000, 55(16): 3329–3334.
[49]  PUYATE Y T, LAWRENCE C J, BUENFELD N R, et al. Chloride transport models for wick action in concrete at large Peclet number [J]. Phys Fluids, 1998, 10(3): 566–575.
[50]  PUYATE Y T, LAWRENCE C J. Wick action at moderate Peclet number [J]. Phys Fluids, 1998, 10(8): 2114–2116.
[51]  PEL L, HUININK H, KOPINGA K. Ion transport and crystallization in inorganic building materials as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance [J]. Appl Phys Lett, 2002, 81(15): 2893–2895.
[52]  LOPEZ-ACEVEDO V, VIEDMA C, GONZALEZ V, et al. Salt crystallization in porous construction materials II: Mass transport and crystallization processes [J]. J Cryst Growth, 1997, 182(1/2): 103–110.
[53]  GOMEZ-HERAS M, FORT R. Patterns of halite (NaCl) crystallisation in building stone conditioned by laboratory heating regimes [J]. Environ Geol, 2007, 52(2): 239–247.
[54]  FLATT R J, STEIGER M L, SCHERER G W. A commented translation of the paper by C.W. Correns and W. Steinborn on crystallization pressure [J]. Environ Geol, 2007, 52(2): 221–237.
[55]  SCHERER G W. Factors affecting crystallization pressure [C]// International RILEM TC 186-ISA workshop and internal sulfate attack and delayed ettringite formation. Villars, Switzerland, 2002.
[56]  RUIZ-AGUDO E, MEES F, JACOBS P, et al. The role of saline solution properties on porous limestone salt weathering by magnesium and sodium sulfates [J]. Environ Geol, 2007, 52(2): 305–317.
[57]  LOPEZ-ARCE P, DOEHNE E, MARTIN W, et al. MgSO4 salts and historic building materials: experimental simulation of limestone flaking by relative humidity cycling and crystallization of salts [J]. Mater Construct, 2008, 58: 125–142.
[58]  LOPEZ-ARCE P, GARCIA-GUINEA J, BENAVENTE D, et al. Deterioration of dolostone by magnesium sulphate salt: An example of incompatible building materials at Bonaval Monastery, Spain [J]. Constr Build Mater, 2009, 23(2): 846–855.
[59]  FRANCIS J, SIDNEY M Y, GRAY R J, et al. The science and technology of civil Engineering materials [M]. Beijing: Chinese Architecture & Building Press, 2006: 9–11.
[60]  马坤林. 混凝土盐结晶侵蚀机理与评价方法[D]. 长沙: 中南大学, 2009.
MA Kunlin. Mechanism and Evaluation Method of Salt Crystallization Attack on Concrete [D]. Changsha: Central South University PhD thesis, 2009.
[61]  NEHDI M, HAYEK M. Behavior of blended cement mortars exposed to sulfate solutions cycling in relative humidity [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2005, 35(4): 731–742.
[62]  CARDELL C, BENAVENTE D, RODRÍGUEZ-GORDILLO J. Weathering of limestone building material by mixed sulfate solutions. Characterization of stone microstructure, reaction products and decay forms [J]. Mater Charact, 2008, 59(10): 1371–1385.
[63]  GENKINGER S, ANDREW P. Crystallisation of sodium sulfate: Supersaturation and metastable phases [J]. Environ Geol, 2007, 52(2): 295–303.
[64]  LIU Zanqun, XIAO Jia, HUANG Hai ,et al. Physicochemical study on the interface zone of concrete exposed to different sulfate solutions [J]. J Wuhan Univ Technol: Mater Sci Ed, 2006, 21(z1): 167–175.
[65]  RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO C, LINARES-FERNANDEZ L, DOEHNE E, et al. Effects of ferrocyanide ions on NaCl crystallization in porous stone [J]. J Cryst Growth, 2002, 243(3/4): 503–516.
[66]  CHARLES S, DOEHNE E. The evaluation of crystallization modifiers for controlling salt damage to limestone [J]. J Cult Herit, 2002, 3(3): 205–216.
[67]  LIU Zanqun, DENG Dehua, DE SCHUTTE G, et al. Chemical sulfate attack performance of partially exposed cement and cement + fly ash paste [J].Constr Build Mater, 2012, 28(1): 230–237.
[68]  SCHERER G W. Stress from crystallization of salt [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2004, 29(9): 1613–1624.
[69]  MEHTA P K. Sulfate attack on concrete: a critical review, materials science of concrete [J]. Am Ceram Soc, 1993, 3: 105–130.
[70]  CAO H T, BUCEA L, RAY A, et al. The effect of cement composition and pH of environment on sulfate resistance of Portland cements and blended cements [J]. Cem Concr Compos, 1997, 19(2): 161–171.
[71]  MILETIC S, ILIC M, OTOVIC S, et al, Phase composition changes due to ammonium-sulphate: Attack on Portland and Portland fly ash cements [J]. Constr Build Mater, 1999, 13(3): 117–127.
[72]  RODRIGUEZ-CAMACHO R E, URIBE-AFIF R. Importance of using the natural pozzolans on concrete durability [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2003, 32(12): 1851–1858.
[73]  SOKKARY E L, ASSAl T M, KANDEEH H, et al. Effect of silica fume or granulated slag on sulphate attack of ordinary portland and alumina cement blend [J]. Ceram Int, 2004, 30(2): 133–138.
[74]  CHINDAPRASIRT P, HOMWUTTIWONG S, SIRIVIVATNANON V. Influence of fly ash fineness on strength, drying shrinkage and sulfate resistance of blended cement mortar [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2004, 34(7): 1087–1092.
[75]  BINICI H, AKSOGAN O. Sulfate resistance of plain and blended cement [J]. Cem Concr Compos, 2006, 28(1): 39–46.
[76]  AL-AKHRAS N M. Durability of metakaolin concrete to sulfate attack [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2005, 36(9): 1727–1734.
[77]  AL-AMOUDI BAGHABRA O S. Attack on plain and blended cements exposed to aggressive sulfate environments [J]. Cem Concr Compos, 2002, 24(3/4): 305–316.
[78]  MEHTA K P, MONTEIRO P J M. Concrete microstructure, properties and materials [M]. 3nd ed. New Jersey: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2004: 295–307
[79]  MONTEIRO P J M, KURTIS K E. Time to failure for concrete exposed to severe sulfate attack [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2003, 33(7): 987–993.
[80]  COLLOP R S, TAYLOR H F W. Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate attack III: Sulfate-resisting cement: reactions with sodium and MgSO4 solution [J]. Cem Concr Res, 1995, 25(7): 1581–1590.
[81]  COLLOP R S, TAYLOR H F W. Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate attack V: Comparison of different slag blends [J]. Cem Concr Res, 1996, 26(7): 1029–1044.
[82]  NOBST P, STARK J. Investigations on the influence of cement type on thaumasite formation [J]. Cem Concr Compos, 2003, 25(8): 899–906.
[83]  WU Zichao, TARUN N R. Chemically activated blended cement [J]. ACI Mater J, 2003, 100(5): 434–440.
[84]  SHI Caijun, DAY R L. Pozzolanic reaction in the presence of chemical activators: Part I. Reaction kinetics [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2000, 30(1): 51–58.
[85]  SHI Caijun, DAY R L. Pozzolanic reaction in the presence of chemical activators: Part II. Reaction products and mechanism [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2000, 30(4): 607–613.
[86]  BAGHABRA AL-AMOUDI O S, MOHAMMED Maslehuddin. Effect of MgSO4 and sodium sulfate on the durability performance of plain and blended cement [J]. ACI Mater J, 1995, 92(1): 15–24.
[87]  NGALA V T, PAGE C L. Effect of carbonation on pore structure and diffusional properties of hydrated cement paste [J]. Cem Concr Res, 1997, 27(7): 995–1007.
[88]  SONG Ha-Won, KWON Seung-Jun. Permeability characteristics of carbonated concrete considering capillary pore structure [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2007, 37(6): 909–915.
[89]  高润东, 赵顺波, 李庆斌. 复合因素作用下混凝土硫酸盐侵蚀劣化机理[J]. 建筑材料学报, 2009, 12(1): 41–46.
GAO Rundong, ZHAO Shunbo, LI Qingbin. J Build Mater, 2009, 12(1): 41–46.
[90]  SULAPHA P, WONG S F, WEE T H, et al. Carbonation of concrete containing mineral admixtures [J]. J Mater Civil Eng, 2003, 15(2): 134–143.
[91]  SEAN M, SHAO Yixin. Assessing the carbonation behavior of cementitious materials [J]. J Mater Civil Eng, 2006, 18(6): 768–776.
[92]  MARLOVA P, KULAKOWSKI, FERNANDA M, et al. Carbonation- induced reinforcement corrosion in silica fume concrete [J]. Constr Build Mater, 2009, 23(3): 1189–1195.
[93]  BELLMANN F, MÖSER B, STARK J, Influence of sulfate solution concentration on the formation of gypsum in sulfate resistance test specimen [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2006, 36(2): 358–363.
[94]  SANTHANAM M, COHEN M D, OLEK J. Sulfate attack research– whither now? [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2004, 31(8): 1275–1296.
[95]  MEHTA P K. Sulfate attack on concrete: separating myths from reality [J]. Concr Int, 2000, 28(8): 57–61.
[96]  ZHOU Q, HILL J, BYARS E A, et al. The role of pH in thaumasite sulfate attack [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2006, 36(1): 160–170.
[97]  JALLAD K N, SANTHANAMB M, COHEN M D. Stability and reactivity of thaumasite at different pH levels [J]. Cem Concr Res, 2003, 33(3): 433–437.
[98]  CRAMMOND N J. The thaumasite form of sulfate attack in the UK [J].Cem Concr Res, 2003, 25(7): 809–818.
[99]  HAGELIA P, SIBBICK R G, CRAMMOND N J, et al. Thaumasite and secondary calcite in some Norwegian concretes [J]. Cem Concr Compos, 2003, 25(8): 1131–1140.
[100]  HAGELIA P, SIBBICK R G. Thaumasite sulfate attack, popcorn calcite deposition and acid attack in concrete stored at the blindtarmen test site Oslo, from 1952 to 1982 [J]. Mater Charact, 2009, 60(7): 686–699.
[101]  邓德华, 肖佳, 元强, 等. 水泥基材料中的碳硫硅钙石, 建筑材料学报[J]. 2005, 8(4): 400–409。
DENG Dehua, XIAO Jia, YUAN Qiang. On thaumasite in cementitious materials [J]. J Build Mater, 2005, 8(4): 400–409.
[102]  AETM C 1012–04. Standard Test Method for Length Change of Hydraulic- Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulfate Solution [S]. 2004.
[103]  VAN TITTELBOOM K, DE BELIE N. A critical review on test methods for evaluating the resistance of concrete against sulfate attack [C]// Concrete in Aggressive Aqueous Environments, Performance, Testing and Modeling, 2009: 298–306.

women want men infidelity signs how do i know if my wife cheated
open click here go
redirect go why women cheat on men they love
why married men cheat on their wives women cheat on men
doxycycline doxycycline doxycycline
sumatriptan side effects sumatriptan side effects sumatriptan side effects
Service and feedback:
Article download】【Add to Wishlist
Editorial Department of Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society
Address: No.11 Sanlihe Road, Beijing, China    P.C.:100831